Detailed Guide forMedical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists in California
May also be called: Clinical Laboratory Scientists; Lab Technologists; Medical Laboratory Scientists; and Medical Technologists
Specialties within this occupation include: Cytogenetic Technologists; Cytotechnologists; Histotechnologists
What Would I Do?
Physicians typically order medical tests when a disease or disorder is suspected to be the cause of an illness. Most testing is done in a modern clinical laboratory using automated testing equipment that can do many of the more routine tests, such as breaking down the components of the blood. However, when human judgment is needed clinical laboratory personnel become involved. Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists play a crucial role in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases.
Medical Technologists prepare specimens for testing and microscopic examination. After testing and examining a specimen, they analyze the results and record the findings into a database. Technologists are responsible for effectively communicating test results to physicians or other laboratory personnel and health care providers. Typical duties include typing and cross-matching blood samples for transfusions; examining bodily fluids and tissue samples to determine the presence of bacteria, parasites, or other microorganisms. They also analyze samples for chemical content to determine concentrations of compounds, such as blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Medical Technologists develop and modify procedures as well as establish and monitor programs to ensure the accuracy of tests.
With increasing automation, the work of Medical Laboratory Technologists has become less hands-on and more analytical. Some of the computerized instruments used in laboratory work are capable of performing a number of tests simultaneously. However, Technologists’ ability to analyze test results accurately and use good judgment is valued by other professionals in the medical field. The amount of responsibility they assume depends largely on the amount of education and experience they have. More experienced Medical Laboratory Technologists may supervise other laboratory personnel or perform administrative duties. Technologists in small laboratories are likely to perform many types of tests, whereas those in large laboratories generally specialize.
Cytogenetic Technologists analyze chromosomes found in biological specimens such as amniotic fluids, bone marrow, and blood to aid in the study, diagnosis, or treatment of genetic diseases.
Cytotechnologists stain, mount, and study cells to detect evidence of cancer, hormonal abnormalities, and other pathological conditions. One of the more frequent tests performed by Cytotechnologists is the Papanicolaou (Pap) test that is used to detect cervical cell abnormalities and malignancies.
Histotechnologists prepare slides from human tissue sections for microscopic examination and diagnosis. They typically work within a pathology department in large hospitals, but may also perform general Technologist duties. The work requires expediency as Histotechnologists are relied upon by pathologists to quickly test and analyze tissue sections during the course of a patient's surgery.
Tools & Technology
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists use a variety of tools in the course of their work such as capillary tubes, cell counters, laminar flow stations, microscopes, and photometers, as well as chemistry, hematology, and computer-controlled analyzers. They also use technology such as electronic medical record (EMR), laboratory information system (LIS), database, and test routing software.
Important Tasks and Related Skills
Each task below is matched to a sample skill required to carry out the task.
|View the skill definitions|
|Task||Skill Used in this Task|
|Conduct chemical analysis of body fluids, including blood, urine, and spinal fluid, to determine presence of normal and abnormal components.||Chemistry|
|Analyze laboratory findings to check the accuracy of the results.||Inductive Reasoning|
|Enter data from analysis of medical tests and clinical results into computer for storage.||Clerical|
|Provide technical information about test results to physicians, health care providers and researchers.||Oral Expression|
|Operate, calibrate and maintain equipment used in quantitative and qualitative analysis, such as spectrophotometers, calorimeters, flame photometers, and computer-controlled analyzers.||Operation Monitoring|
|Establish and monitor quality assurance programs and activities to ensure the accuracy of laboratory results.||Quality Control Analysis|
|Set up, clean, and maintain laboratory equipment.||Mechanical|
|Supervise, train, and direct lab assistants, medical and clinical laboratory technicians and technologists, and other medical laboratory workers engaged in laboratory testing.||Monitoring|
|Collect and study blood samples to determine the number of cells, their morphology, or their blood group, blood type, and compatibility for transfusion purposes, using microscopic techniques.||Biology|
Below is a definition for each skill.
|View the tasks to skills list|
|Chemistry||Knowledge of the chemical composition, structure, and properties of substances and of the chemical processes and transformations that they undergo. This includes uses of chemicals and their interactions, danger signs, production techniques, and disposal methods.|
|Inductive Reasoning||The ability to combine pieces of information to form general rules or conclusions (includes finding a relationship among seemingly unrelated events).|
|Clerical||Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.|
|Oral Expression||The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.|
|Operation Monitoring||Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.|
|Quality Control Analysis||Conducting tests and inspections of products, services, or processes to evaluate quality or performance.|
|Mechanical||Knowledge of machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.|
|Monitoring||Monitoring/Assessing performance of yourself, other individuals, or organizations to make improvements or take corrective action.|
|Biology||Knowledge of plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, interdependencies, and interactions with each other and the environment.|
Working conditions vary with the size and type of employment setting. Laboratories usually are well lit and clean; however, specimens, solutions, and reagents sometimes produce fumes. Protective masks, gloves, and goggles often are necessary to ensure the safety of laboratory personnel. Clinical Laboratory Technologists are trained to work with infectious specimens. When proper methods of infection control and sterilization are followed, few hazards exist. Laboratory workers may spend a great deal of time on their feet and are expected to maintain mental alertness.
In large hospitals or in independent laboratories that operate continuously, Technologists typically work a 40-hour workweek. They may work the night shift as well as weekends and holidays. Laboratory Technologists in small facilities may work on rotating shifts, rather than on a regular shift, and in some facilities, they are on call several nights a week or on weekends in cases of an emergency.
Unionization is not common in this occupation. However, Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists who work for government agencies or large hospitals may belong to a union.
Will This Job Fit Me?
The job of Medical Laboratory Technologist may appeal to those who enjoy working with ideas and technology. The job requires an extensive amount of thinking, searching for facts, and figuring out problems. Medical Technologists must also be able to communicate with research team members and production staff at all levels. Results-oriented individuals who are attentive to detail, confident decision makers, and technology proficient may enjoy this type of job.
What Wages and Benefits Can I Expect?
The median wage in 2016 for Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists in California is $84,335 annually, or $40.55 hourly. The median is the point at which half of the workers earn more and half earn less.
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists generally receive good benefits including medical, dental, life, and vision insurance, as well as vacation, sick leave, and pension plans.
What is the Job Outlook?
Employment of Medical and Clinical Lab Technologists will see some growth. This is due to the increasing volume of laboratory tests as the population ages, new types of tests being developed, and health care legislation. However, research and development efforts targeted at simplifying routine testing procedures may enhance the ability of non-laboratory personnel such as physicians and patients, to perform tests now conducted in laboratories.
Projections of Employment
In California, the number of Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists is expected to grow slower than average growth rate for all occupations. Jobs for Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists are expected to increase by 11.7 percent, or 1,200 jobs between 2012 and 2022.
|Estimated Employment and Projected Growth|
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists
(Estimated Year-Projected Year)
Due to Net
|View Projected Growth for All Areas|
Annual Job Openings
In California, an average of 130 new job openings per year is expected for Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists, plus an additional 270 job openings due to net replacement needs, resulting in a total of 400 job openings.
|Estimated Average Annual Job Openings|
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists
|Jobs From Growth||Jobs Due to|
|View Data for All Areas|
How Do I Qualify?
Education, Training, and Other Requirements
The minimum educational requirement for entry-level jobs is a bachelor's degree in medical technology or in one of the life sciences. A master's or doctoral degree is necessary for college teaching, independent research, and some administrative jobs. The level of responsibility and type of work performed determine the degree required.
In order to do testing and analysis of human samples, Medical Laboratory Technologists must be licensed with the California Department of Public Health (CDPH). Personnel who are not licensed may work in federally funded nonprofit laboratories, academic institutions engaged in teaching or research, state-licensed community clinics, private physicians' offices, and some state government agencies.
Most employers prefer to hire applicants who have obtained a bachelor's degree and completed at least two or more years as a state-licensed Clinical Laboratory Scientist (CLS).
Early Career Planning
Those interested in becoming a Medical Laboratory Technologist should take classes in biology, chemistry, physics, algebra, English, speech, health, and computer technology. Some Regional Occupational Programs (ROP) offer introductory courses in medical technologies and terminology. To find an ROP program near you, go to the California Association of Regional Occupational Centers and Programs Web site.
To renew a CLS license, the license holder must obtain 24 hours of continuing education approved by accrediting agencies or from an accredited academic institution during the two-year renewal cycle from the date the license was issued. Immunohematologists, Cytogenetic Technologists, and Hematologists are included in the CLS license continuing education requirements. Cytotechnologist licensees must, however, obtain 12 hours of continuing education annually.
Licensing and Certification
Completion of a bachelor's degree is followed by a 12-month CDPH approved CLS training program or a 12-month National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS) training program in a clinical laboratory approved by the CDPH. All candidates accepted into a clinical training program must first obtain a trainee license from the CDPH. The most recent list of training programs can be found on the CDPH's Laboratory Field Services Web site.
Contact CDPH for an application and instructions prior to graduating. A renewable training license will be issued once a bachelor's degree is obtained and final transcripts have been confirmed. Most programs will interview and accept students before they have received their trainee license as long as they will have their license prior to actually starting training programs.
Upon successful completion of the 12-month CLS training program, participants are awarded the Clinical Laboratory Science/Medical Technology Certificate. Certified candidates then take the California CLS licensing exam and one of the certification exams offered by the American Society of Clinical Pathology. After a trainee has passed the required examinations, they may apply for California licensure through CDPH. Contact the agency that issues the license for additional information. Click on the license title below for details.
Medical Laboratory Technologists may hold one or several certificates such as: Certification in Clinical Pathology, International Medical Technologist, Specialist in Cytotechnology, and Certified Medical Interpreter. For more information, go to the U.S. Department of Labor's Career InfoNet Web site and scroll down to "Career Tools." Click on "Certification Finder" and follow the instructions to locate certification programs.
Where Can I Find Training?
There are two ways to search for training information:
- Search by Field of Study to find what programs are available and what schools offer those programs. You may use keywords such as: Clinical Laboratory Scientist, Laboratory Worker, Medical/Clinical Laboratory, and Medical Technology.
- Search by Training Provider to find schools by name, type of school, or location.
Contact the schools you are interested in to learn about the classes available, tuition and fees, and any prerequisite course work.
Where Would I Work?
The largest industries employing Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists are as follows:
|Industry Title||Percent of Total Employment for Occupation in California|
|General Medical and Surgical Hospitals ||45.0%|
|Medical and Diagnostic Laboratories ||29.5%|
|Offices of Physicians ||6.4%|
|Federal Government ||3.8%|
|Other Ambulatory Health Care Services ||2.6%|
Finding a Job
Direct application to employers is one of the best ways to find a job. Hospitals and medical laboratories are the largest employers of Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists. Other possible job search methods include using a college placement service, attending healthcare job fairs, and visiting a One-Stop Career Center. Online job opening systems include JobCentral at www.jobcentral.com and CalJOBSSM at www.caljobs.ca.gov.
To find your nearest One-Stop Career Center, go to Service Locator. View the helpful job search tips for more resources. (requires Adobe Reader).
Yellow Page Headings
You can focus your local job search by checking employers listed online or in your local telephone directory. Below are some suggested headings where you might find employers of Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists.
- Health Clinics
- Laboratories, Medical
- Physicians' Offices
Find Possible Employers
To locate a list of employers in your area, go to "Find Employers" on the Labor Market Information Web site:
- Select one of the top industries that employ the occupation. This will give you a list of employers in that industry in your area.
- Click on "View Filter Selections" to limit your list to specific cities or employer size.
- Click on an employer for the street address, telephone number, size of business, Web site, etc.
- Contact the employer for possible employment.
Where Could This Job Lead?
Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists may advance to supervisory or administrative positions in laboratory work. Manufacturers of home diagnostic testing kits and laboratory equipment and supplies also seek experienced Technologists to work in product development, marketing, and sales.
Professional certification and an advanced degree in medical technology, one of the biological sciences, chemistry, management, or education usually speeds advancement. A doctoral degree usually is needed to become a laboratory director. Federal regulation requires directors of moderately complex laboratories to have at least a master's degree in combination with the appropriate amount of training and experience.
Below is a list of occupations related to Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technologists with links to more information.
|Medical and Clinical Laboratory Technicians||Guide|
These links are provided for your convenience and do not constitute an endorsement by EDD.
For the Career Professional
The following codes are provided to assist counselors, job placement workers, or other career professionals.